Follow Witt's projects and pubs on Google Scholar and ResearchGate.

Peer-reviewed Articles

*Bold = past or present affiliate of UNM Ornithology


Williamson, J.L., E.F. Gyllenhaal, S.M. Bauernfeind, E. Bautista, M.J. Baumann, C.R. Gadek, N. Ricote, P.P. Marra, F. Bozinovic, N.D. Singh, and C.C. Witt. Extreme elevational migration spurred cryptic speciation in giant hummingbirds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 121(21) e2313599121 pdf 

Cicero, C., Koo, M. S., Braker, E., Abbott, J., Bloom, D., Campbell, M., Cook, J. A., Demboski, J. R., Doll, A. C., Frederick, L. M., Linn, A. J., Mayfield-Meyer, T. J., McDonald, D. L., Nachman, M. W., Olson, L. E., Roberts, D., Sikes, D. S., Witt, C. C., & Wommack, E. (2023). Arctos: Community-driven innovations for managing biodiversity and cultural collections (p. 2023.12.15.571899). bioRxiv.

Witt, C. C., Gadek, C. R., Cartron, J.-L. E., Andersen, M. J., Campbell, M. L., Castro-Farías, M., Gyllenhaal, E. F., Johnson, A. B., Malaney, J. L., Montoya, K. N., Patterson, A., Vinciguerra, N. T., Williamson, J. L., Cook, J. A., & Dunnum, J. L. (2024). Extraordinary levels of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in vertebrate animals at a New Mexico desert oasis: Multiple pathways for wildlife and human exposure.  Environmental Research 249: 118229 


Baumann, M. J., Brant, S. V., Bauernfeind, S. M., Gerhart, C. R. B., Williamson, J. L., Johnson, A. B., Spellman, G., Uhrig, S. R., West, S., & Witt, C. C. 2023. Freshwater parasites as potential barriers to seabird dispersal: Evidence from vagrant booby specimens in western North America. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 135(3):327-344 .

C. J. Schmitt, C. R. Gadek, E. Bautista, M. Segura, and C. C. Witt. 2023. Primer registro del Negrito Austral (Lessonia rufa) para el Perú. Boletín de la Unión de Ornitólogos del Perú (UNOP), 18(1): 51-53. 

Nachman, M. W., Beckman, E. J., Bowie, R. C., Cicero, C., Conroy, C. J., Dudley, R., Hayes, T. B., Koo, M. S., Lacey, E. A., Martin, C. H., McGuire, J. A., Patton, J. L., Spencer, C. L., Tarvin, R. D., Wake, M. H., Wang, I. J., Achmadi, A., Álvarez-Castañeda, S. T., Andersen, M. J., … C. C. Witt, et al. (2023). Specimen collection is essential for modern science. PLOS Biology, 21(11), e3002318.

Williamson, J. L., E. B. Linck, E. Bautista, A. Smiley, J. A. McGuire, R. Dudley, and C. C. Witt. 2023. Hummingbird blood traits track oxygen availability across space and time. Ecology Letters 26(7): 1-14 

Linck, E. B., J. L. Williamson, E. Bautista, E. J. Beckman, P. M. Benham, S. G. DuBay, L. M. Flores, C. R. Gadek, A. B. Johnson, M. R. Jones, J. Núñez-Zapata, A. Quiñonez, C. J. Schmitt, D. Susanibar, J. Tiravanti, K. Verde-Guerra, N. A. Wright, T. Valqui, J. F. Storz, and C. C. Witt. 2023. Blood variation implicates respiratory limits on elevational ranges of Andean birds. The American Naturalist 201(5): 741-754:

Klicka, J., K. Epperly, B. Tilston Smith, G. M. Spellman, J. A. Chaves, P. Escalante, C. C. Witt, R. Canales-del-Castillo, and R. M. Zink. 2023. Lineage diversity in a widely distributed New World Passerine, the House Wren. Ornithology 140: 1–13. 


Beckman, E. J., Vargas Campos, W., Benham, P. M., Schmitt, C. J., Cheviron, Z. A., & Witt, C. C. 2022. Selection on embryonic haemoglobin in an elevational generalist songbird. Biology Letters, 18(10), 20220105.

Schuppe, E.R., Cantin, L., Chakraborty, M., Biegler, M.T., Jarvis, E., Chen, C., Hara, E., Bertelsen, M.F., Witt, C.C., Jarvis, E.D., and Fuxjager, M.J. 2022. Forebrain nuclei linked to woodpecker territorial drum displays mirror those that enable vocal learning in songbirds. PLoS Biology. 20: e3001751. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3001751

Gadek, C.R., J. L. Williamson, & C. C. Witt. Intra- and interspecific nest stacking of marsh-dwelling songbirds. Biotropica 00: 1–6. DOI: 

Cowles, S. A., C. C. Witt, E. Bonaccorso, F. Grewe, J. A. C. Uy. Early stages of speciation with gene flow in the Amazilia Hummingbird (Amazilis amazilia) subspecies complex of Western South America. Ecology and Evolution 12 (5) e8895. DOI: 

Wang, Z., J. Zhang, X. Xu, C. C. Witt, Y. Deng, G. Chenc, G. Meng, S. Feng, L. Xu, T. Szekely, G. Zhang, & Q. Zhou. 2022. Phylogeny and Sex Chromosome Evolution of Palaeognathae. Journal of Genetics and Genomics. DOI:


Mattison, P. M., & C. C. Witt. 2021. Ecogeography of plumage pigmentation in Great Horned Owls. Journal of Raptor Research 55(4). DOI: 

Potter, J. H. T.,  R. Drinkwater, K. T. J. Davies, M. Nesi, M. C. W. Lim, L. R. Yohe, H. Chi, X. Zhang, I. Levantis, B. K. Lim, C. C. Witt, G. Tsagkogeorga, M. dos Reis, Y. Liu, W. Furey, M. J. Whitley, D. Aksentijevic, L. M. Dávalos, S. Rossiter. Nectar-feeding bats and birds show parallel molecular adaptations in sugar metabolism enzymes. Current Biology. DOI: 

Williamson, J. L. and C. C. Witt. 2021. A lightweight backpack harness for tracking hummingbirds. Journal of Avian Biology 52 (9): e02802. DOI: 10.1111/jav.02802. PDF

Szarmach, S., A Brelsford, C. C. Witt, & D. Toews. 2021. Comparing divergence landscapes from reduced-representation and whole-genome re-sequencing in the Yellow-rumped Warbler (Setophaga coronata) species complex. Molecular Ecology 30 (23) 5994-6005. DOI: 

Williamson, J. L. & C. C. Witt. Elevational niche-shift migration: Why the degree of elevational change matters for the ecology, evolution, and physiology of migratory birds. 2021. Ornithology 138 (2): 1-26. (open access) *Editor's Choice & Finalist for the Wesley Lanyon Award

McNew, S. M., L. N. Barrow, J. L. Williamson, S. C. Galen, H. Skeen, S. G. DuBay, A. M. Gaffney, A. B. Johnson,  E. Bautista, P. Ordoñez,  C. Jonathan Schmitt, A. Smiley, T. Valqui,  J. M. Bates, S. J. Hackett, & C. C. Witt. 2021. Contrasting drivers of diversity in hosts and parasites across the tropical Andes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118: 12 e2010714118. PDF. News coverage: UNM Newsroom, Twitter thread, Field Museum press release.

Lim, M. C. W., K. Bi, C. C. Witt, C. H. Graham, & L. M. Dávalos. 2021. Pervasive genomic signatures of local adaptation to altitude across highland specialist Andean hummingbird populations. Journal of Heredity.

Laura N. Céspedes-Arias, A. M. Cuervo, E. Bonaccorso, M. Castro-Farías, A. Mendoza-Santacruz, J. L. Pérez-Emán, C. C. Witt, & C. D. Cadena. 2021. Extensive hybridization between two Andean warbler species with shallow divergence in mtDNA. Ornithology 138(1): ukaa065. 

Barrow, L. N., S. M. Bauernfeind, P. A. Cruz, J. L. Williamson, D. L. Wiley, J. E. Ford, M. J. Baumann, S. S. Brady, A. N. Chavez, C. R. Gadek, S. C. Galen, A. B. Johnson, X. M. Mapel, R. A. Marroquin-Flores, T. E. Martinez, J. M. McCullough, J. McLaughlin, & C. C. Witt. 2021. Comparing community composition despite incomplete sampling and uneven abundance: a case study of sky-island haemosporidian parasites. Oecologia 195: 435-451. 


Feng, Shaohong, and 100+ authors including C. C. Witt. Dense sampling of bird diversity increases power of comparative genomics. 2020. Nature 587:  252-257. Open access pdf available from:

Wolf,  B.O.A. E. McKechnie, C. J. Schmitt, Z. J. Czenze, A. B. Johnson & C. C. Witt. 2020. Extreme and variable torpor among high-elevation Andean hummingbird species. Biology Letters 16: 9.  News coverage at the New York Times, Science Magazine, Science News, and NewScientist.

Trujillo-Arias, N.,  M. J. Rodríguez-Cajarville,  E. Sari, C. Y. Miyaki , F. R. Santos, C. C. Witt , A. S. Barreira, M. I. Gomez, K. Naoki , P.  L. Tubaro, and G. S. Cabanne. 2020. Evolution between forest macrorefugia is linked to discordance between genetic and morphological variation in Neotropical passerines. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 149: 106849.

Wander, K., S. Mingjie, P. M. Mattison, C-Y. Sum, C. C. Witt, M. K. Shenk, T. Blumenfield, H. Li & S. M. Mattison. 2020. High-altitude adaptations mitigate risk for hypertension and diabetes-associated anemia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 172(2): 156-164.

Sweazea, K. L., K. Tsosie, E. J. Beckman, P. M. Benham, & C. C Witt. 2020. Seasonal and elevational variation in glucose and glycogen in two songbird species. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 245: 110703.

Galen, S. C., J. Borner, J. L. Williamson, C. C. Witt, & S. L. Perkins. 2020. Metatranscriptomics yields new genomic resources for blood parasites and sensitive detection of infections. Molecular Ecology Resources 20: 14-28.   (Molecular Ecology Perspective Piece)


Yun Sung Cho, JeHoon Jun, Jung A Kim, Hak-Min Kim, Oksung Chung, Seung-Gu Kang, Jin-Young Park, Hwa-Jung Kim, Sunghyun Kim, Hee-Jong Kim, Jin-ho Jang, Ki-Jeong Na, Jeongho Kim, Seung Gu Park, Hwang-Yeol Lee, A. Manica, D. P. Mindell, J. Fuchs, J. S. Edwards, J. A. Weber, C. C. Witt, Joo-Hong Yeo, Soonok Kim, & Jong Bhak. 2019. Raptor genomes reveal evolutionary signatures of predatory and nocturnal lifestyles. Genome Biology 20: 181.

Storz, J. F., C. Natarajan, A. V. Signore, C. C. Witt, D. M. McCandlish & A. Stoltzfuz. 2019. The role of mutation bias in adaptive molecular evolution: insights from convergent changes in protein function. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 374.

Lim, M. C. W., C. C. Witt, C. H. Graham, L. M. Dávalos. 2019.  Parallel Molecular Evolution in Pathways, Genes, and Sites in High-Elevation Hummingbirds Revealed by Comparative Transcriptomics. Genome Biology and Evolution, 11: 1552-1572. 

Barrow, L. N., S. M. McNew, N. Mitchell, S. C. Galen, H. L. Lutz, H. Skeen, T. Valqui, J. D. Weckstein & C. C. Witt. 2019. Deeply conserved susceptibility in a multi‐host, multi‐parasite system. Ecology Letters, 22: 987-998.

Williamson, J. L., C. J. Wolf, L. N. Barrow, M. J. Baumann, S. C. Galen, C. J. Schmitt, D. Schmitt, A. S. Winter & C. C. Witt. 2019. Ecology, not distance, explains community composition in parasites of sky-island Audubon’s Warblers. International Journal for Parasitology, 49: 437-448.

Barrow, L. N., J. M. Allen, X. Huang, S. Bensch & C. C. Witt. 2019. Genomic sequence capture of haemosporidian parasites: Methods and prospects for enhanced study of host–parasite evolution. Molecular Ecology Resources, 19: 400-410.

Baumann, M. J., A. B. Johnson, E. Bautista, D. J. Lebbin, C. A. S. Camacho, E. A. Torres Paucar, C. Aucca Chutas, & C. C. Witt. 2019. Notes on the nest, breeding season, and elevational range of a rare hummingbird, the Purple-backed Sunbeam (Aglaeactis aliciae). Ornitología Neotropical 30, 123-127. (pdf)


Trujillo-Arias, N., L. Calderón, F. R. Santos, C. Y. Miyaki, A. Aleixo, C. C. Witt, P. L. Tubaro, G. S. Cabanne. 2018. Forest corridors between the central Andes and the southern Atlantic Forest enabled dispersal and peripatric diversification without niche divergence in a passerine. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 128: 221-232.

Beckman, E. J., P. M. Benham, Z. A. Cheviron, C. C. Witt. 2018. Detecting introgression despite phylogenetic uncertainty: The case of the South American siskins. Molecular Ecology, 27: 4350-4367.

Pérez-Emán, J. L., J. P. Ferreira, N. Gutiérrez-Pinto, A. M. Cuervo, L. N. Céspedes, C. C. Witt, C. D. Cadena. 2018. An extinct hummingbird species that never was: a cautionary tale about sampling issues in molecular phylogenetics. Zootaxa, 4442: 491-497. (pdf)

Gadek, C. R., S. D. Newsome, E. J. Beckman, A. N. Chavez, S. C. Galen, E. Bautista & C. C. Witt. 2018. Why are tropical mountain passes “low” for some species? Genetic and stable‐isotope tests for differentiation, migration and expansion in elevational generalist songbirds. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87: 741-753.


Skandalis, D. A., P. S. Segre, J. W. Bahlman, D. J. E. Groom, K. C. Welch Jr., C. C. Witt, J. A. McGuire, R. Dudley, D. Lentink & D. L. Altshuler. 2017. The biomechanical origin of extreme wing allometry in hummingbirds. Nature Communications, 8: 1-9.

Marroquin-Flores, R. A., J. L. Williamson, A. N. Chavez, S. M. Bauernfeind, M. J. Baumann, C. R. Gadek, A. B. Johnson, J. M. McCullough, C. C. Witt, & L. N. Barrow. 2017. Diversity, abundance, and host relationships of avian malaria and related haemosporidians in New Mexico pine forests. PeerJ, 5: e3700.

Fecchio, A., et al. 2017. Host associations and turnover of haemosporidian parasites in manakins (Aves: Pipridae). Parasitology, 144: 984-993.

Reddy, S., R. T. Kimball, A. Pandey, P. A. Hosner, M. J. Braun, S. J. Hackett, K–L. Han, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, S. Kingston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, C. C. Witt, T. Yuri, & E. L. Braun.  2017. Why do phylogenomic data sets yield conflicting trees? Data type influences the avian tree of life more than taxon sampling. Systematic Biology, 66: 857–879. 

Kumar, A.,  C. Natarajan, H. Moriyama, C. C. Witt, R. E. Weber, A. Fago, & J. F. Storz. 2017. Intramolecular epistasis and neutral corridors of protein evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 34: 1240-1251.  (pdf)

Clark W. S., S. C. Galen, J. M. Hull, M. A. Mayo & Witt C. C. 2017. Contrasting molecular and morphological evidence for the identification of an anomalous Buteo: a cautionary tale for hybrid diagnosis. PeerJ, 5:e2850

Qualls, C., C. C. Witt, N. R. Wilson, S. R. Cruz, E. Bautista & O. Appenzeller. 2017. Human and Hummingbird Hemoglobin Concentrations and Metabolic Rhythms at Altitude Determined with Statistical Modeling. Journal of Biometrics and Biostatistics, 8: 1-7. 5 (pdf)

Salazar, S., J. L. Mena, D. F. Lane, & C. C. Witt. 2017. Estatus y distribución en el Perú del Tucán Andino de Pico Negro (Andigena nigrirostris). Revista Peruana de Biología, 24: 055-058. 


Natarajan, C., F. G. Hoffmann, R. E. Weber, A. Fago, C. C. Witt, & J. F. Storz. 2016. Predictable convergence in hemoglobin function has unpredictable molecular underpinnings. Science 354:336-339 (pdf). Commentary in Science by Jamie Bridgham. Article in The Scientist by Anna Azvolinsky. Science Daily article. Expect the Unexpected research brief in Science by Sacha Vignieri. Recommended by F1000.

Wright, N. A., D. Steadman, & C. C. Witt. 2016. Predictable evolution toward flightlessness in volant island birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113: 4765-4770. doi:10.1073/pnas.1522931113. (pdf + supplement) National Geographic Phenomenon Blog story by Ed Yong; Complete Altmetrics report here, including links to coverage by 13 news outlets and 4 blogs.

Suh, A., C. C. Witt, J. Menger, K. R. Sadanandan, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Gerth, A. Weigert, J. A. McGuire, J. Mudge, S. V. Edwards, & F. E. Rheindt. 2016. Ancient horizontal transfers of retrotransposons between birds and ancestors of human pathogenic nematodes. Nature Communications 7: 11396. (html full text) (pdf + supplement) (Twitter buzz) (News coverage from Complete Altmetrics report here, including links to coverage by >20 news outlets.

Benham, P. M., & C. C. Witt. 2016. The dual role of Andean topography in primary divergence: functional and neutral variation among populations of the hummingbird, Metallura tyrianthina. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 16:22, doi: 10.1186/s12862-016-0595-2. (pdf)

Toomey M. B., O. Lind, R. Frederiksen, R. Curley, K. Riedle, D. Wilby, S. Schwartz, C. C. Witt, E. Harrison, N. Roberts, M. Vorobyev, K. McGraw, M. Cornwall, A. Kelber, & Joseph Corbo. 2016. Complementary shifts in photoreceptor spectral tuning unlock the full adaptive potential of ultraviolet vision in birds. eLife, 5:e15675.

Carmi, O., C. C. Witt, A. Jaramillo, & J. P. Dumbacher. 2016. Phylogeography of the Vermilion Flycatcher species complex: multiple speciation events, shifts in migratory behavior, and an apparent extinction of a Galápagos-endemic bird species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 102: 152-173. News coverage at Scientific American and Audubon Magazine.


Galen, S. C.*, C. Natarajan*, H. Moriyama, R. E. Weber, A. Fago, P. M. Benham, A. N. Chavez, Z. A. Cheviron, J. F. Storz**, & C. C. Witt**. 2015. Contribution of a mutational hotspot to hemoglobin adaptation in high-altitude Andean house wrens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112: 13958-63. doi:10.1073/pnas.1507300112; */**Equal contributions. (pdf including supplement) (commentary in PNAS by Stolzfus & McCandlish) (press release from UNL via (press release from UNM)

Baumann, M. J., E. J. Beckman, E. Bautista, & C. C. Witt. 2015. Long-distance dispersal of a sedentary Andean flycatcher species with a narrow ecoclimatic niche, Ochthoeca piurae (Aves: Tyrannidae). Checklist, 11: 1795. (pdf)

Beckman, E. J., & C. C. Witt. 2015. Phylogeny and biogeography of the New World siskins and goldfinches: rapid, recent radiation in the Central Andes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 87:28-45. (pdf)

Benham, P. M., A. M. Cuervo, J. A. McGuire, & C. C. Witt. 2015. Biogeography of the Andean metaltail hummingbirds: contrasting evolutionary histories of treeline and habitat-generalist clades. Journal of Biogeography, 42:763-777, doi:10.1111/jbi.12452 (pdf)

Carriker, C. R., C. M. Mermier, T. A. VanDusseldorp, K. E. Johnson, N. M. Beltz, R. A. Vaughan, N. H. Cole, C. C. Witt, & A. L. Gibson. 2015. Effect of acute dietary nitrate consumption on oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise in hypobaric hypoxia. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 26: 315-322.


Opazo, J. C., F. G. Hoffmann, C. Natarajan, C. C. Witt, M. Berenbrink, J. F. Storz. 2014. Gene turnover in the avian globin gene families and evolutionary changes in hemoglobin isoform expression. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 32: 871- 887. (pdf + supplement) 

DuBay, S. G., & C. C. Witt. 2014. Differential high-altitude adaptation and limited gene flow between elevational replacement species of Andean tit-tyrant flycatchers. Molecular Ecology, 23: 3551–3565. (pdf)

Jones, M. R., & C. C. Witt. 2014. Migrate small, sound big: Functional constraints on body size promote tracheal elongation in cranes. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 27:1256–1264. DOI: 10.1111/jeb.12397 (pdf with supplement) (Journal cover with Sandhill Crane photo by Bert Pearlman)(Albuquerque Journal article by John Fleck)

Baumann, M. J., N. D. Pederson, S. C. Galen, & C. C. Witt. 2014. Simple technique for distinguishing Yellow-bellied Flycatchers from Cordilleran and Pacific-slope flycatchers. Journal of Field Ornithology, 85:391-396.(pdf) (doi link) (Field Museum blog post by Josh Engel)

Rocha, L. A., [120 additional authors], & C. C. Witt. 2014. Specimen collection: an essential tool. Science, 344:814:815. (pdf) (California Academy of Sciences press release) (University of Michigan press release) (related blog article by Kevin Winker)

McGuire, J. A., C. C. Witt, J. V. Remsen, Jr., A. Corl, D. L. Rabosky, D. L. Altshuler, R. Dudley. 2014. Molecular phylogenetics and diversification of the hummingbirds. Current Biology, 24: 910-916. (1.8 MB pdf of main paper only) (21.8 MB pdf including supplement) (link to article at Cell Press) (UC-Berkeley Press Release)(Reuters article with sicklebill photo) (Scientific American article by Ed Yong) (Nature Magazine article with sicklebill photo) (Christian Science Monitor article) (Livescience article) (Guardian article by GrrlScientist)

Galen, S. C., & C. C. Witt. 2014. Diverse avian malaria and other haemosporidian parasites in Andean house wrens: evidence for regional co-diversification by host-switching. Journal of Avian Biology, 45: 374-386. (Online version at journal site) (pdf of article plus supplement)

Wright, N. A., T. R. Gregory, & C. C. Witt. 2014. Metabolic ‘engines’ of flight drive genome size reduction in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281(1779). (complete pdf, incl. supplement) (Early electonic edition at Royal Society) (News coverage at Earth Times) (News coverage at (News coverage at (Press release at UNM Newsroom) (Picture of authors on UNM Homepage)

Cheviron, Z. A., C. Natarajan, J. Projecto-Garcia, D. K. Eddy, J. Jones, M. D. Carling, C. C. Witt, H. Moriyama, R. E. Weber, A. Fago, & J. Storz. 2014. Integrating evolutionary and functional analyses to test hypotheses about molecular adaptation: A case study of altitudinal differentiation in hemoglobin function in an Andean sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 31: 2948-2962. (pdf including supplements)


Projecto-Garcia, J.*, C. Natarajan*, H. Moriyama, A. Fago, R. Weber, Z. A. Cheviron, R. Dudley, J. A. McGuire, C. C. Witt**, and J. F. Storz**. 2013. Repeated elevational transitions in hemoglobin function during the evolution of Andean hummingbirds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110: 20669-20674. doi:10.1073/pnas.1315456110. */**Equal contributions. (pdf including supplements) (News article in Christian Science Monitor) (News article in The Guardian)

Dickerman, R. W., S. M. McNew, & C. C. Witt. 2013. Long-distance movement in the "Dusky" Great Horned Owl and current limits to phylogeography for establishing provenance. Western North American Naturalist, 73(4): 401-408. (pdf) (link to journal)

Yuri, T., R. T. Kimball, J. Harshman, R. C. K. Bowie, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, K.-L. Han, S. J. Hackett, C. J. Huddleston, W. S. Moore, S. Reddy, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt, E. L. Braun. 2013. Parsimony and model-based analyses of indels in avian nuclear genes reveal congruent and incongruent phylogenetic signals. Biology, 2: 419-444. (pdf) (link to open access article)

Schmitt, C. J., T. Valqui, and C. C. Witt. 2013. The expanding known range of Stygian Owl (Asio stygius) in the Andes. Boletín de la Unión de Ornitólogos del Perú (UNOP), 8(2): 37-45. (pdf) (link to open access journal page)

Baumann, M. J., S. M. McNew, & C. C. Witt. 2013. Morphological and molecular evidence confirm the first definitive eastern White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis) for New Mexico. Western Birds, 44: 90-97. (pdf)

Schmitt, C. J., D. C. Schmitt, J. Tiravanti C., F. Angulo P., I. Franke, L. Pollack, & C. C. Witt. 2013. Avifauna of a relict Podocarpus forest in the Cachil Valley, Northwest Peru. Cotinga, 35: 15-23. (pdf)


Witt, C. C., and R. W. Dickerman. 2012. Differential migration by sex in North American Short-eared Owls (Asio flammeus). Western Birds, 43: 36-47. (pdf)

DuBay, S. G., and C. C. Witt. 2012. An improved phylogeny of the Andean tit-tyrants (Aves, Tyrannidae): more characters trump sophisticated analyses. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 64:285-296. (pdf)

Sibly, R. M., C. C. Witt, N. A. Wright, C. Venditti, W. Jetz, and J. H. Brown. 2012. Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109: 10937-10941. (link) (pdf & supp. info) (Commentary by F. Stephen Dobson in PNAS) (News article in UNM Today)

Jones, M. R., and C. C. Witt. 2012. Utility of vocal formant spacing for monitoring sandhill crane subspecies. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 36: 47–53. (pdf)

2011 & earlier

Johnson, A. B., S. M. McNew, M. S. Graus, and C. C. Witt. 2011. Mitochondrial DNA and meteorological data suggest a Caribbean origin for New Mexico’s first Sooty Tern (Onychoprion fuscatus). Western Birds, 42: 233-242. (pdf)

Engel, J. I., M. H. Hennan, C. C. Witt, and J. D. Weckstein. 2011.  Affinities of three vagrant Cave Swallows (Petrochelidon fulva) from eastern North America. Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 123(4): 840-845. (pdf)

Witt, C. C. and E. Bautista-Obispo. 2011. Triorchidism in a hummingbird. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 123(3): 632–635. (pdf)

Braun, E. L., R. T. Kimball, K.-L. Han, N. R. Iuhasz, A. J. Bonilla, J. L. Chojnowski, J. V. Smith, R. C. K. Bowie, M. J. Braun, S. J. Hackett, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, S. Reddy, F. H. Sheldon, C. C. Witt, & T. Yuri. 2011. Homoplastic Microinversions and the Avian Tree of Life. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11:141. (pdf)

Baumann, M. J., N. D. Pederson, J. Oldenettel, M. S. Graus, S. M. McNew, & C. C. Witt. 2011. Molecular and morphological evidence confirm the first record of Eastern Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus) for New Mexico. NMOS Bulletin, 39: 1-10. (pdf)

Benham, P. M., E. J. Beckman, S. G. DuBay, M. Flores, A. B. Johnson, M. J. Lelevier, C. J. Schmitt, N. A. Wright, and C. C. Witt. 2011. Satellite imagery reveals new critical habitat for endangered bird species in the high Andes of Peru. Endangered Species Research, 13(2): 145-157. (Open Access Full Text)

Han, K-L., E. L. Braun, R. T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. C. K. Bowie, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, S. J. Hackett, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt & T. Yuri. 2011. Are transposable element insertions homoplasy free? An examination using the avian tree of life. Systematic Biology, 60(3): 375-386. (pdf)

Witt, C. C., M. S. Graus, and H. A. Walker. 2010. Molecular data confirm the first record of Long-billed Murrelet (Brachyramphus perdix) for New Mexico. Western Birds, 41: 160-167. (pdf)

Kirchman, J. J., C. C. Witt, J. A. McGuire, G. R. Graves. 2010. DNA from 100-year old holotype confirms the validity of a potentially extinct hummingbird species. Biology Letters, 6. (pdf) (Evolución y Diversidad article)

Gregory, T. R., C. Andrews, J. A. McGuire, & C. C. Witt. 2009. The smallest avian genomes are found in hummingbirds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 276:3753-3757. (pdf)(Science News Article) (JOURNAL COVER)

Merkord, C. L., T. Mark, D. Susanibar, A. B. Johnson, & C. C. Witt. 2009. Avifaunal survey of the Rio Chipaota Valley in the Cordillera Azul region, San Martín, Perú. Ornitologia Neotropical, 20(4): 535-552. (pdf)

Witt, C. C., & D. F. Lane. 2009. Range extensions for two rare high-Andean birds in central Perú. Cotinga, 31: 90-94. (pdf)

Kimball, R. T., E. L. Braun, F. K. Barker, R. Bowie, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, S. J. Hackett, K.-L. Han, J. Harshman, V. Heimer-Torres, W. Holznagel, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, S. Reddy, F. H. Sheldon, J. V. Smith, C. C. Witt, & T. Yuri. 2008. A well-tested set of primers to amplify regions spread across the avian genome. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 50: 654-660. (pdf)

McGuire, J. A., C. C. Witt, J. V. Remsen, Jr., R. Dudley, & D. L. Altshuler. 2008. A higher-level taxonomy for hummingbirds. Journal of Ornithology. (pdf)

Harshman, J., E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, C. J. Huddleston, R. C. K. Bowie, J. L. Chojnowski, S. J. Hackett, K.-L. Han, R. T. Kimball, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, S. Reddy, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, S. J. Steppan, C. C. Witt, & T. Yuri. 2008. Phylogenomic Evidence for Multiple Losses of Flight in Ratite Birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105: 13462-13467. (pdf)

Hackett, S. J., R. T. Kimball, S. Reddy, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, W. A. Cox, J Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, R. C. K. Bowie, J. L. Chojnowski, K.-L. Han, B. D. Marks, K J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt, and T. Yuri. 2008. Phylogenomics rewrites the evolutionary history of birds. Science, 320: 1763-1768. (pdf) (Recommended by Faculty of 1000)

Witt, C. C. and S. Maliakal-Witt. 2007. Why are diversity and endemism linked on islands? Ecography, 30: 331-333. (pdf) (Recommended by Faculty of 1000)

McGuire, J. A., C. C. Witt, D. L. Altshuler, J. V. Remsen, Jr. 2007. Phylogenetic Systematics and Biogeography of Hummingbirds: Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Analyses of Partitioned Data and Selection of an Appropriate Partitioning Strategy. Systematic Biology, 56: 837-856. (pdf)

Web Publications

The Ornithology Blog: Reviews, ornithology news, and opinions from the Witt Lab & MSB Birds. 2013-. (formerly

Beckman, E. J., & C. C. Witt. 2015. Change South American siskins from the genus Sporagra to the genus Spinus. Proposal 675 to the South American Checklist Committee (SACC).

Dubay, S. G., & C. C. Witt. 2012. Proposal for the resurrection of the genus Uromyias. Proposal to South American Checklist Committee (SACC).

Dubay, S. G., & C. C. Witt. 2009. Pied-crested Tit-Tyrant (Anairetes reguloides). In Neotropical Birds Online(T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology;

Capparella, A. P., & C. C. Witt. 2009. Pardusco (Nephelornis oneilli). In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology;

Popular Articles

Witt, C. C. 2019.  Golden age for the study of bird movements. Bosque Tracks: Newsletter of the Rio Grande Nature Center, March-June 2019 Issue. (reprinted on The Ornithology Blog)

Witt, C. C. 2016. Birds in the Anthropocene: Scientific evidence of rapid change. Bosque Tracks: Newsletter of the Rio Grande Nature Center, January-March 2016 Issue. (reprinted on The Ornithology Blog)

Witt, C. C. 2015. Turning tragedy to treasure: Preserving dead birds teaches us about live ones. Bosque Tracks: Newsletter of the Rio Grande Nature Center, January-March 2015 Issue. (reprinted on The Ornithology Blog)

Witt, C. C. 2013. Lies and lying cranes who tell them. Bosque Tracks: Newsletter of the Rio Grande Nature Center, January-March 2013 Issue, pp. 2-7. (pdf)

Witt, C. C. 2012. Sandhill Cranes don’t speak with one voice. Bosque Tracks: Newsletter of the Rio Grande Nature Center, January-March 2012 Issue, pp. 6-7. (pdf)

Witt, C. C. 2010. Albuquerque’s amazing hummingbirds. Bosque Tracks: Newsletter of the Rio Grande Nature Center, July-September Issue, pp. 8-9. (pdf)

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